Title: Methylparaben in meconium and risk of maternal thyroid dysfunction, adverse birth outcomes, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Authors: Baker, Brennan H; Wu, Haotian; Laue, Hannah E; Boivin, Amélie; Gillet, Virginie; Langlois, Marie-France; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Takser, Larissa
Published In Environ Int, (2020 06)
Abstract: Parabens, which are used as a preservative in foods and personal care products, are detected in nearly 100% of human urine samples. Exposure to parabens is associated with DNA damage, male infertility, and endocrine disruption in adults, but the effects of prenatal exposure are unclear. In part, this is due to inadequate assessment of exposure in maternal urine, which may only reflect maternal rather than fetal exposure. To address this gap, we examined the association of prenatal methylparaben measured in meconium with preterm birth, gestational age, birthweight, maternal thyroid hormones, and child Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at 6-7 years.Data come from the GESTation and the Environment (GESTE) prospective observational pregnancy cohort in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. Participants were 345 children with data on ADHD among 394 eligible pregnancies in women age ≥18 years with no known thyroid disease before pregnancy and meconium collected at delivery. Methylparaben was measured in meconium. Birthweight, gestational age, and maternal thyroid hormones at <20 weeks gestation were measured at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke. Preterm birth was defined as vaginal birth before the 37th week of gestation. Physician diagnosis of ADHD was determined at a scheduled cohort follow-up when children were 6-7 years old or from medical records. Associations between meconium methylparaben and outcomes were estimated with logistic and linear regressions weighted on the inverse probability of exposure to account for potential confounders, including child sex, familial income, maternal education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, and smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy.Methylparaben was detected in 65 meconium samples (19%), 33 children were diagnosed with ADHD (10%), and 13 children were born preterm (4%). Meconium methylparaben was associated with preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] = 4.81; 95% CI [2.29, 10.10]), decreased gestational age (beta [β] = -0.61 weeks; 95% CI [-0.93, -0.29]) and birthweight (β = -0.12 kg; 95% CI [-0.21, -0.03]), altered maternal TSH (relative concentration [RC] = 0.76; 95% CI [0.58, 0.99]), total T3 (RC = 0.84; 95% CI [0.75, 0.96]) and total T4 (RC = 1.10; 95% CI [1.01, 1.19]), maternal hypothyroxinemia (OR = 2.50, 95% CI [1.01, 6.22]), and child ADHD at age of 6-7 (OR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.45, 3.76]). The effect of meconium methylparaben on ADHD was partially mediated by preterm birth (20% mediation) and birthweight (13% mediation).Meconium methylparaben was associated with preterm birth, decreased gestational age and birthweight, maternal thyroid hormone dysfunction, and child ADHD. Parabens are a substantial health concern if causally related to these adverse outcomes.
PubMed ID: 32283359
MeSH Terms: Adult; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity*/epidemiology; Canada; Child; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Meconium; Parabens*/toxicity; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications*/epidemiology; Pregnancy Outcome; Premature Birth*/epidemiology; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Quebec/epidemiology; Thyroid Diseases*/epidemiology