Title: Immunotoxicity of low level cadmium exposure in fish: an alternative animal model for immunotoxicological studies.
Authors: Zelikoff, J T; Bowser, D; Squibb, K S; Frenkel, K
Published In J Toxicol Environ Health, (1995 Jul)
Abstract: Cadmium represents a major aquatic pollutant in many parts of the world. Yet, despite the fact that cadmium accumulates in high concentrations in fish tissues, is found in polluted aquatic environments, and is carcinogenic and immunotoxic in a variety of mammalian species, the effects of cadmium on the immune responses of directly exposed aquatic species have not been clearly defined. This study was designed to assess the effects of in vivo cadmium exposure, at a concentration found in contaminated aquatic environments, on the immune defense mechanisms of fish. In this study, no effects were observed upon body weight, lysozyme activity, of cell viability, despite the high concentration of accumulated cadmium in the gills and liver. Furthermore, in the absence of any clinical manifestations or overt toxicity, exposure of rainbow trout to waterborne cadmium at 2 ppb altered macrophage-mediated immune functions, including phagocytosis and free radical production, in a time-dependent manner. Similar immunotoxic effects of cadmium have also been observed in mammals. Although interspecies comparisons between mammalian and fish immune responses are extremely complicated and need to be approached with caution, results from this study suggest the applicability of fish as an additional/alternative animal model for immunotoxicological studies.
PubMed ID: 7609000
MeSH Terms: Animals; Body Burden; Cadmium/analysis; Cadmium/toxicity*; Disease Models, Animal*; Macrophages/drug effects*; Muramidase/drug effects; Muramidase/metabolism; Oncorhynchus mykiss/immunology*; Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolism; Phagocytosis/drug effects; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.