Title: Phthalate and Bisphenol Exposure during Pregnancy and Offspring Nonverbal IQ.
Authors: van den Dries, Michiel A; Guxens, Mònica; Spaan, Suzanne; Ferguson, Kelly K; Philips, Elise; Santos, Susana; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Trasande, Leonardo; Tiemeier, Henning; Pronk, Anjoeka
Published In Environ Health Perspect, (2020 07)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to phthalates and bisphenols are associated with impaired brain development in animals. However, epidemiological studies investigating the association between prenatal phthalate or bisphenol exposure and cognition have produced mixed findings and mostly had modest sample sizes and measured the exposure during the third trimester. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between pregnancy maternal urinary biomarkers of phthalate or bisphenol exposure and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in children 6 years of age. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 1,282 mother-child pairs participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort in Rotterdam, Netherlands (enrollment 2002-2006). We measured maternal urinary concentrations of 18 phthalate metabolites and 8 bisphenols at , 18-25, and of gestation. Child nonverbal IQ was measured at 6 years of age using the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised. Linear regression models were fit for each of the three collection phases separately, the three collection phases jointly, and for the averaged prenatal exposure across pregnancy. RESULTS: Higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during early pregnancy were associated with lower child nonverbal IQ score [e.g., B per 10-fold increase in summed low-molecular (95% CI: , )]. This association remained unchanged when adjusted for mid and late pregnancy exposures. We also observed an inverse association between late pregnancy di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) exposure and nonverbal IQ. Maternal urinary concentrations of bisphenols were not associated with child nonverbal IQ. There was no effect estimate modification by sex. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe that maternal biomarkers of bisphenol exposure are associated with nonverbal IQ. We found that phthalate exposure in early pregnancy and DNOP exposure in late pregnancy are associated with lower nonverbal IQ scores in children. Our results might suggest that particularly early pregnancy is a sensitive window of phthalate exposure, but future studies are needed to replicate our findings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6047.
PubMed ID: 32716663
MeSH Terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/blood*; Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Intelligence Tests; Intelligence/drug effects*; Male; Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data*; Netherlands; Phenols/blood*; Phenols/toxicity; Phthalic Acids/blood*; Phthalic Acids/toxicity; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology*