Title: Microphysiological system modeling of ochratoxin A-associated nephrotoxicity.
Authors: Imaoka, Tomoki; Yang, Jade; Wang, Lu; McDonald, Matthew G; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Bammler, Theo K; Van Ness, Kirk; Yeung, Catherine K; Rettie, Allan E; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Kelly, Edward J
Published In Toxicology, (2020 11)
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most abundant mycotoxin contaminants in food stuffs and possesses carcinogenic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic properties. Specifically, a major concern is severe nephrotoxicity, which is characterized by degeneration of epithelial cells of the proximal tubules and interstitial fibrosis. However, the mechanism of OTA toxicity, as well as the genetic risk factors contributing to its toxicity in humans has been elusive due to the lack of adequate models that fully recapitulate human kidney function in vitro. The present study attempts to evaluate dose-response relationships, identify the contribution of active transport proteins that govern the renal disposition of OTA, and determine the role of metabolism in the bioactivation and detoxification of OTA using a 3D human kidney proximal tubule microphysiological system (kidney MPS). We demonstrated that LC50 values of OTA in kidney MPS culture (0.375-1.21 μM) were in agreement with clinically relevant toxic concentrations of OTA in urine. Surprisingly, no enhancement of kidney injury biomarkers was evident in the effluent of the kidney MPS after OTA exposure despite significant toxicity observed by LIVE/DEAD staining. Instead, these biomarkers decreased in an OTA concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the effect of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and 6-(7-Nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), pan-inhibitors of P450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes, respectively, on OTA-induced toxicity in kidney MPS was examined. These studies revealed significant enhancement of OTA-induced toxicity by NBDHEX (3 μM) treatment, whereas ABT (1 mM) treatment decreased OTA-induced toxicity, suggesting roles for GSTs and P450 enzymes in the detoxification and bioactivation of OTA, respectively. Analysis of transcriptional changes using RNA-sequencing of kidney MPS treated with different concentrations of OTA revealed downregulation of several nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2)-like 2 (NRF2)-regulated genes by OTA treatment, including GSTs. The transcriptional repression of GSTs is likely playing a key role in OTA toxicity via attenuation of glutathione conjugation/detoxification. The sequential molecular events may explain the mechanism of toxicity associated with OTA. Additionally, OTA transport studies using kidney MPS in the presence and absence of probenecid (1 mM) suggested a role for organic anionic membrane transporter(s) in the kidney specific disposition of OTA. Our findings provide a clearer understanding of the mechanism of OTA-induced kidney injury, which may support changes in risk assessment, regulatory agency policies on allowable exposure levels, and determination of the role of genetic factors in populations at risk for OTA nephrotoxicity.
PubMed ID: 32905824
MeSH Terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Epithelial Cells/drug effects*; Epithelial Cells/pathology; Humans; Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*; Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology*; Models, Biological*; Ochratoxins/toxicity*