Title: Neuroinflammatory and Behavioral Outcomes Measured in Adult Offspring of Mice Exposed Prenatally to E-Cigarette Aerosols.
Authors: Church, Jamie S; Chace-Donahue, Fiona; Blum, Jason L; Ratner, Jill R; Zelikoff, Judith T; Schwartzer, Jared J
Published In Environ Health Perspect, (2020 04)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In an effort to decrease the rates of smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been proposed as an effective smoking cessation tool. However, little is known about their toxicological impacts. This is concerning given that e-cigarette use is perceived as less harmful than conventional tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy for both the mother and fetus. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to test the neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal e-cigarette use on adult offspring behavior and neuroimmune outcomes. METHODS: Pregnant female CD-1 mice were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups () and exposed daily to either filtered air, propylene glycol and vegetable glycerol (50:50 PG/VG vehicle), or to PG/VG with nicotine (). Whole-body exposures were carried out for 3 h/d, 7 d/week, from gestational day (GD)0.5 until GD17.5. Adult male and female offspring (8 weeks old) were assessed across a battery of behavioral assessments followed by region-specific quantification of brain cytokines using multiplex immunoassays. RESULTS: Adult offspring of both sexes exposed to exhibited elevated locomotor activity in the elevated plus maze and altered stress-coping strategies in the forced swim task. Moreover, male and female offspring exposed to PG/VG with and without nicotine had a 5.2% lower object discrimination score in the novel object recognition task. In addition to differences in offspring behavior, maternal e-cigarette exposure with nicotine led to a reduction in interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon-gamma () in the diencephalon, as well as lower levels of hippocampal (females only). E-cigarette exposure without nicotine resulted in a 2-fold increase of IL-6 in the cerebellum. DISCUSSION: These findings support previous adverse findings of e-cigarette exposure on neurodevelopment in a mouse model and provide substantial evidence of persistent adverse behavioral and neuroimmunological consequences to adult offspring following maternal e-cigarette exposure during pregnancy. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6067.
PubMed ID: 32293200
MeSH Terms: Aerosols/analysis; Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems*; Female; Glycerol/adverse effects; Inflammation/chemically induced; Inflammation/immunology*; Locomotion/drug effects*; Mice; Nicotine/adverse effects; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology*; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology*; Propylene Glycol/adverse effects; Random Allocation; Stress, Psychological/chemically induced; Stress, Psychological/psychology*