Title: Influence of KRAS mutations, persistent organic pollutants, and trace elements on survival from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Authors: Porta, Miquel; Pumarega, José; Amaral, André F S; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Camargo, Judit; Mucci, Lorelei; Alguacil, Juan; Gasull, Magda; Zhang, Xuehong; Morales, Eva; Iglesias, Mar; Ogino, Shuji; Engel, Lawrence S; PANKRAS II Study Group
Published In Environ Res, (2020 11)
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Reasons why pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to have poor survival are only partly known. No previous studies have analyzed the combined influence of KRAS mutations, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and trace elements upon survival in PDAC or in any other human cancer. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the individual and combined influence of KRAS mutations, POPs, and trace elements upon survival from PDAC. METHODS: Incident cases of PDAC (n = 185) were prospectively identified in five hospitals in Eastern Spain in 1992-1995 and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission. KRAS mutational status was determined from tumour tissue through polymerase chain reaction and artificial restriction fragment length polymorphism. Blood and toenail samples were obtained before treatment. Serum concentrations of POPs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Concentrations of 12 trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess prognostic associations. RESULTS: Patients with a KRAS mutated tumor had a 70% higher risk of early death than patients with a KRAS wild-type PDAC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7, p = 0.026), adjusting for age, sex, and tumor stage. KRAS mutational status was only modestly and not statistically significantly associated with survival when further adjusting by treatment or by treatment intention. The beneficial effects of treatment remained unaltered when KRAS mutational status was taken into account, and treatment did not appear to be less effective in the subgroup of patients with a KRAS mutated tumor. POPs did not materially influence survival: the adjusted HR of the highest POP tertiles was near unity for all POPs. When considering the joint effect on survival of POPs and KRAS, patients with KRAS mutated tumors had modest and nonsignificant HRs (most HRs around 1.3 to 1.4). Higher concentrations of lead, cadmium, arsenic, vanadium, and aluminium were associated with better survival. When KRAS status, POPs, and trace elements were simultaneously considered along with treatment, only the latter was statistically significantly related to survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this study based on molecular, clinical, and environmental epidemiology, KRAS mutational status, POPs, and trace elements were not adversely related to PDAC survival when treatment was simultaneously considered; only treatment was independently related to survival. The lack of adverse prognostic effects of POPs and metals measured at the time of diagnosis provide scientific and clinical reassurance on the effects of such exposures upon survival of patients with PDAC. The weak association with KRAS mutations contributes to the scant knowledge on the clinical implications of a genetic alteration highly frequent in PDAC.
PubMed ID: 32791343
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma*/genetics; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Humans; Mutation; Pancreatic Neoplasms*/genetics; Persistent Organic Pollutants; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics; Spain; Trace Elements*