Title: Stimulation of reactive oxygen, but not reactive nitrogen species, in vascular endothelial cells exposed to low levels of arsenite.
Authors: Barchowsky, A; Klei, L R; Dudek, E J; Swartz, H M; James, P E
Published In Free Radic Biol Med, (1999 Dec)
Abstract: Elevated levels of arsenite, the trivalent form of arsenic, in drinking water correlates with increased vascular disease and vessel remodeling. Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenite caused oxidant-dependent increases in nuclear transcription factor levels in cultured porcine vascular endothelial cells. The current studies characterized the reactive species generated in these cells exposed to levels of arsenite that initiate cell signaling. These exposures did not deplete 5'-triphosphate, nor did they affect basal or bradykinin-stimulated intracellular free Ca2+ levels, indicating that they were not lethal. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, including spin trapping with carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO), demonstrated that 5 microM or less of arsenite did not increase *NO levels over a 30-min period relative to *NO release stimulated by bradykinin. However, these same levels of arsenite rapidly increased both oxygen consumption and superoxide formation, as measured by EPR oximetry and spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), respectively. Pretreatment of the cells with DPI, apocynin, or superoxide dismutase abolished arsenite-stimulated DMPO-OH adduct formation. Finally arsenite increased extracellular accumulation of H2O2, measured as oxidation of homovanillic acid, with the same time and dose dependence, as seen for superoxide formation. These data suggest that superoxide and H2O2 are the predominant reactive species produced by endothelial cells after arsenite exposures that stimulate cell signaling and activate transcription factors.
PubMed ID: 10641735
MeSH Terms: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism; Animals; Aorta; Arsenites/administration & dosage; Arsenites/pharmacology*; Benzoates; Calcium/metabolism; Cells, Cultured; Cyclic N-Oxides; Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy; Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects*; Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism*; Free Radicals; Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism; Imidazoles; Nitrogen Oxides/metabolism; Nitrogen/metabolism*; Oxygen Consumption; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism*; Spin Labels; Superoxides/metabolism; Swine