Title: Effects of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke on offspring tumor susceptibility and associated immune mechanisms.
Authors: Ng, Sheung P; Silverstone, Allen E; Lai, Zhi-Wei; Zelikoff, Judith T
Published In Toxicol Sci, (2006 Jan)
Abstract: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to intact (unfractionated) cigarette smoke (CS) increases the incidence of cancer in the offspring. A toxicology study was carried out to examine the effects and underlying mechanisms of prenatal exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) on offspring resistance to tumor challenge and surveillance mechanisms critical for the recognition and destruction of tumors. Pregnant B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to MCS for 5 days/week (4 h/day from gestational day 4 to parturition). Smoke-induced effects on offspring-host resistance to transplanted tumor cells; natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity; cytokine levels; lymphoid organ immune cell subpopulations; and histology-were examined in 5-, 10- and 20-week-old male and female offspring. At a concentration of smoke roughly equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes/day, prenatally exposed male offspring challenged at 5 week of age with EL4 lymphoma cells demonstrated a greater than two-fold increase in tumor incidence (relative to age-/gender-matched air-exposed offspring); tumors in prenatally smoke-exposed pups also grew significantly faster. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in the smoke-exposed 5- and 10-week-old male pups was significantly less than that of the age- and gender-matched controls. No effects of prenatal CS exposure were observed on offspring NK activity, cytokine levels, lymphoid organ histology, or immune cell subpopulations. Results demonstrated that exposure of pregnant mice to a relevant dose of MCS decreased offspring resistance against transplanted tumor cells and persistently reduced CTL activity in prenatally exposed pups. This study provides biological plausibility for the epidemiologic data indicating that children of mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a greater risk of developing cancer in later life.
PubMed ID: 16207940
MeSH Terms: Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects*; Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/immunology; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Susceptibility/chemically induced*; Disease Susceptibility/immunology; Disease Susceptibility/pathology; Female; Inhalation Exposure; Lymphoid Tissue/drug effects; Lymphoid Tissue/immunology; Lymphoid Tissue/pathology; Lymphoma, T-Cell/immunology*; Lymphoma, T-Cell/pathology; Male; Maternal Exposure/adverse effects*; Mice; Mice, Inbred Strains; Neoplasm Transplantation/immunology; Neoplasm Transplantation/pathology; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced*; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology; Spleen/drug effects; Spleen/pathology; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/drug effects; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology; Thymus Gland/drug effects; Thymus Gland/pathology; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects*