Title: In vitro effect of arsenical compounds on glutathione-related enzymes.
Authors: Chouchane, S; Snow, E T
Published In Chem Res Toxicol, (2001 May)
Abstract: The mechanism of arsenic toxicity is believed to be due to the ability of arsenite (As(III)) to bind protein thiols. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular thiol, and both GSH and GSH-related enzymes are important antioxidants that play an important role in the detoxification of arsenic and other carcinogens. The effect of arsenic on the activity of a variety of enzymes that use GSH has been determined using purified preparations of glutathione reductase (GR) from yeast and bovine glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and equine glutathione S-transferase (GST). The effect on enzyme activity of increasing concentrations (from 1 microM to 100 mM) of commercial sodium arsenite (As(III)) and sodium arsenate (As(V)) and a prepared arsenic(III)-glutathione complex [As(III)(GS)(3)] and methylarsenous diiodide (CH(3)As(III)) has been examined. GR, GPx, and GST are not sensitive to As(V) (IC(50) > 50 mM), and none of the enzymes are inhibited or activated by physiologically relevant concentrations of As(III), As(III)(GS)(3), or CH(3)As(III), although CH(3)As(III) is the most potent inhibitor (0.3 mM < IC(50) < 1.5 mM). GPx is the most sensitive to arsenic treatment and GST the least. Our results do not implicate a direct interaction of As with the glutathione-related enzymes, GR, GPx, and GST, in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. CH(3)As(III) is the most effective inhibitor, but it is unclear whether this product of arsenic metabolism is produced at a sufficiently high concentration in critical target tissues to play a major role in either arsenic toxicity or carcinogenesis.
PubMed ID: 11368549
MeSH Terms: Arsenicals/metabolism*; Arsenicals/pharmacology*; Carcinogens/metabolism; Carcinogens/toxicity*; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Glutathione Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors*; Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism; Glutathione Reductase/antagonists & inhibitors*; Glutathione Reductase/metabolism; Glutathione Transferase/antagonists & inhibitors*; Glutathione Transferase/metabolism; Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase/antagonists & inhibitors; Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase/metabolism