Title: Nickel-induced down-regulation of serpin by hypoxic signaling.
Authors: Zhao, Jianhua; Yan, Yan; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max
Published In Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, (2004 Jan 01)
Abstract: Nickel (Ni) carcinogenesis is thought to involve gene chip silencing by epigenetic mechanisms. Serpina3g, a member of the mouse serpin family, was among the most down-regulated genes (32-fold) in response to Ni exposure of mouse cells based on the Affymetrix gene chip. Serpina3g down-regulation was controlled by a hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) mechanism. The exposure of cells to cobalt (Co), hypoxia, the iron chelator deferoxamine, and the proline hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) also down-regulated serpina3g transcription to similar extents as soluble Ni exposure. These results support the mounting experimental evidence that water-soluble Ni compounds have a predominant effect on hypoxia signaling because of their ability to interfere with Fe homeostasis in the cell. Trichostatin A (TSA) and 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) reactivated the Ni-silenced serpina3g gene, indicating that its silencing by Ni involved either a direct or indirect epigenetic mechanism. Analysis of the chromatin state of the serpina3g promoter by the ChIP assay revealed that exposure of mouse fibroblast cells to Ni resulted in the methylation of H3 lysine 9 within its promoter, as well as a decrease in the phosphorylation of serine 10 of H3 and a marked decrease in the acetylation of H3 and H4. Serpina3g gene expression returned to basal levels following Ni removal, suggesting that the observed silencing was a dynamic and reversible process.
PubMed ID: 14728980
MeSH Terms: Animals; Cell Hypoxia/drug effects; Cell Hypoxia/physiology; Cell Line; Down-Regulation/drug effects*; Down-Regulation/physiology; Fibroblasts/drug effects; Fibroblasts/metabolism; Fibroblasts/physiology; Mice; Nickel/pharmacology*; Serpins/metabolism*