Title: Ontogeny of rapid estrogen-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the rat cerebellar cortex: potent nongenomic agonist and endocrine disrupting activity of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A.
Authors: Zsarnovszky, Attila; Le, Hoa H; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Belcher, Scott M
Published In Endocrinology, (2005 Dec)
Abstract: In addition to regulating estrogen receptor-dependent gene expression, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) can directly influence intracellular signaling. In primary cultured cerebellar neurons, E(2) was previously shown to regulate growth and oncotic cell death via rapid stimulation of ERK1/2 signaling. Here we show that ERK1/2 signaling in the cerebellum of neonatal and mature rats was rapidly responsive to E(2) and during development to the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA). In vivo dose-response analysis for each estrogenic compound was performed by brief (6-min) intracerebellar injection, followed by rapid fixation and phosphorylation-state-specific immunohistochemistry to quantitatively characterize changes in activated ERK1/2 (pERK) immunopositive cell numbers. Beginning on postnatal d 8, E(2) significantly influenced the number of pERK-positive cells in a cell-specific manner that was dependent on concentration and age but not sex. In cerebellar granule cells on postnatal d 10, E(2) or BPA increased pERK-positive cell numbers at low doses (10(-12) to 10(-10) M) and at higher (10(-7) to 10(-6) M) concentrations. Intermediate concentrations of either estrogenic compound did not modify basal ERK signaling. Rapid E(2)-induced increases in pERK immunoreactivity were specific to the ERK1/2 pathway as demonstrated by coinjection of the mitogen-activated, ERK-activating kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor U0126. Coadministration of BPA (10(-12) to 10(-10) M) with 10(-10) M E(2) dose-dependently inhibited rapid E(2)-induced ERK1/2 activation in developing cerebellar neurons. The ability of BPA to act as a highly potent E(2) mimetic and to also disrupt the rapid actions of E(2) at very low concentrations during cerebellar development highlights the potential low-dose impact of xenoestrogens on the developing brain.
PubMed ID: 16123166
MeSH Terms: Aging/metabolism; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Benzhydryl Compounds; Cerebellar Cortex/enzymology*; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Combinations; Endocrine System/drug effects*; Estradiol/administration & dosage; Estradiol/pharmacology*; Estrogens, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage; Estrogens, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology*; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism*; Female; Immunohistochemistry; Male; Phenols/administration & dosage; Phenols/pharmacology*; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Signal Transduction/drug effects*