Title: Characterization of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor gene and its expression in Atlantic tomcod.
Authors: Roy, N K; Wirgin, I
Published In Arch Biochem Biophys, (1997 Aug 15)
Abstract: Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA is not inducible in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River that are treated with halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). In contrast, CYP1A1 mRNA is inducible in Hudson River tomcod that are treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in tomcod that are collected from cleaner rivers and treated with HAHs or PAHs. We hypothesize that CYP1A1 transcription is inhibited in Hudson River tomcod because of down-regulation of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway and that separate molecular pathways modulate CYP1A1 transcription in fish treated with HAHs and PAHs. We initially evaluated levels of hepatic nuclear protein binding at enhancer elements (DREs) in the regulatory region of tomcod CYP1A1. No difference in levels of protein binding was observed between tomcod from the Hudson and Miramichi (cleaner) rivers that were untreated or were treated with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, levels of protein binding were lower in tomcod from the Hudson River that were treated with TCB than in similarly treated fish from the Miramichi River, suggesting differences between the populations in the structure or expression of AhR pathway molecules. To address this possibility, AhR DNA sequences were characterized from tomcod cDNA and genomic DNA libraries. In tomcod and mammals, AhR is represented by 11 exons, overall peptide sizes are similar, and amino acid sequences at basic, helix-loop-helix, PAAS A, and PAAS B domains are highly conserved. In contrast, little similarity was observed between tomcod and mammals in the sizes or sequences of AhR exons 10 and 11, including the absence in tomcod of glutamine-rich domains. No differences in levels of hepatic AhR mRNA were observed between the two populations or treatment groups when tomcod were untreated or were treated with aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, variation in levels of AhR mRNA expression was observed among tomcod tissues; however, no relationship was observed between levels of AhR mRNAs and CYP1A1 mRNAs in tissues from chemically or vehicle control-treated fish. RFLP analysis revealed extensive variation in exons 10 and 11 of AhR cDNA among tomcod from different rivers. Our results suggest that variation between tomcod populations in CYP1A1 mRNA inducibility is reflected by differences in levels of inducible hepatic protein binding to DREs. However, levels of hepatic AhR mRNA are not down-regulated in the Hudson River population, are not affected by AH treatments, and levels of AhR mRNA expression are not responsible for the differential inducibility of CYP1A1 transcription.
PubMed ID: 9264552
MeSH Terms: Animals; Benzo(a)pyrene/pharmacology; Cloning, Molecular; Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/genetics*; Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism; Enhancer Elements, Genetic; Exons/genetics; Fishes/genetics*; Fishes/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects; Humans; Liver/metabolism*; Polychlorinated Biphenyls/pharmacology; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/pharmacology*; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/analysis; RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/chemistry; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics*; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin/pharmacology