Title: Arsenic as an endocrine disruptor: effects of arsenic on estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in vivo and in cell culture.
Authors: Davey, Jennifer C; Bodwell, Jack E; Gosse, Julie A; Hamilton, Joshua W
Published In Toxicol Sci, (2007 Jul)
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is considered a serious worldwide environmental health threat that is associated with increased disease risks including skin, lung, bladder, and other cancers; type 2 diabetes; vascular and cardiovascular diseases; reproductive and developmental effects; and neurological and cognitive effects. Increased health risks may occur at as low as 10-50 ppb, while biological effects have been observed in experimental animal and cell culture systems at much lower levels. We previously reported that As is a potent endocrine disruptor, altering gene regulation by the closely related glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, progesterone, and androgen steroid receptors (SRs) at concentrations as low as 0.01 microM ( approximately 0.7 ppb). Very low doses enhanced hormone-mediated gene transcription, whereas slightly higher but still noncytotoxic doses were suppressive. We report here that As also disrupts the more distally related estrogen receptor (ER) both in vivo and in cell culture. At noncytotoxic doses (1-50 micromol/kg arsenite) As strongly suppressed ER-dependent gene transcription of the 17beta-estradiol (E2)-inducible vitellogenin II gene in chick embryo liver in vivo. In cell culture, noncytotoxic levels (0.25-3 microM, approximately 20-225 ppb) of As significantly inhibited E2-mediated gene activation of an ER-regulated reporter gene and the native ER-regulated GREB1 gene in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. While the effects of As on ER-dependent gene regulation were generally similar to As effects on the other SRs, there were specific differences, particularly the lack of significant enhancement at the lowest doses, that may provide insights into possible mechanisms.
PubMed ID: 17283378
MeSH Terms: Animals; Arsenic/toxicity*; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Survival/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Chick Embryo; Culture Media; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity*; Female; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects*; Humans; Indicators and Reagents; Luciferases/biosynthesis; Luciferases/genetics; Mass Spectrometry; Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis; RNA/biosynthesis; RNA/genetics; Receptors, Estrogen/drug effects*; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics*; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Transfection