Title: Induction and prevention of carcinogenesis in rat skin exposed to space radiation.
Authors: Burns, Fredric J; Tang, Moon-shong; Frenkel, Krystyna; Nádas, Arthur; Wu, Feng; Uddin, Ahmed; Zhang, Ronghe
Published In Radiat Environ Biophys, (2007 Jun)
Abstract: Quantitative cancer incidence data exist for various laboratory animal models, but little of this information is usable for estimating human risks, primarily because of uncertainties about possible mechanistic differences among species. Acceptance and utilization of animal data for human risk assessment will require a much better understanding of the comparative underlying mechanisms than now exists. A dual-lesion, radiation-track model in rat skin has proven to be consistent with tumor induction data with respect to acute radiation doses ranging from 0.5 up to 10 Gy and higher, and average LETs ranging from 0.34 to 150 keV microm(-1) according to the form neoplastic risk (D,L) = CLD + BD2. A recent result with the 56Fe ion beam showed dose-response consistency for malignant (carcinomas) and benign (fibromas) tumor induction with earlier results utilizing argon and neon ion beams. A discrepancy between the model and experiment was found indicating that proportionality of cancer yield with LET did not occur at 150 versus 125 keV microm(-1), i.e. tumor yield did not increase in spite of a 20% increase of LET, which suggests that a LET response maximum exists at or within this dose range. Concordance between the model and tumor induction data in rat skin implies that potential intervening complexities of carcinogenic progression fail to obscure the basic radiobiological assumptions underpinning the model. Gene expression microarray analysis shows that vitamin A inhibits the expression of about 80% of the inflammation-related genes induced by the radiation and prevents about 46% of the neoplasms associated with 56Fe ion radiation without appearing to interfere with the underlying dose and LET response patterns. Further validation is needed, but the model has the potential to provide quantitative estimates of cancer risk as a function of dose and LET for almost any type of radiation exposure and even for combinations of different radiations provided only three empirical parameters can be established for each type of radiation and organ system.
PubMed ID: 17387500
MeSH Terms: Animals; Computer Simulation; Cosmic Radiation*; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/radiation effects; Heavy Ions; Male; Models, Biological; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism*; Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology; Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/pathology; Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/physiopathology*; Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/prevention & control*; Radiation Dosage; Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Skin Neoplasms/etiology*; Skin Neoplasms/pathology; Skin Neoplasms/physiopathology*; Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control; Vitamin A/therapeutic use*