Title: Glutathione S-transferases act as isomerases in isomerization of 13-cis-retinoic acid to all-trans-retinoic acid in vitro.
Authors: Chen, H; Juchau, M R
Published In Biochem J, (1997 Nov 01)
Abstract: A discovery that rapid enzymic isomerization of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA) to all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA) can be catalysed by purified hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 220.127.116.11) from rat is now reported. Rates of cis-trans isomerization were determined quantitatively by HPLC. GST-catalysed reactions reached equilibrium rapidly, in marked contrast with uncatalysed or GSH-catalysed isomerizations. The GST-catalysed reaction exhibited substrate saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 8 microM. The maximal velocity of the reaction and the catalytic efficiency of GSTs were determined. The initial rate of the reaction increased linearly as a function of enzyme concentration. Catalysis by GSTs was independent of the presence of GSH, indicating that GSTs act as GSH-independent isomerases as well as transferases. Incubation with guanidine (7-8 M) or heat-inactivation of GSTs (100 degrees C for 3 min) decreased isomerase activities by approx. 50% and 75% respectively. The same heat treatment did not significantly inhibit isomerization catalysed by GSH and apoferritin, indicating that the observed decrease in isomerase activity by heat inactivation was not primarily due to oxidation of protein thiol groups in the GSTs. The specific activity of GSTs was approx. 23- and 340-fold those of GSH and apoferritin respectively when comparisons were made on the basis of free thiol concentrations, indicating that free thiol in GSTs cannot account for the majority of observed isomerase activities and suggesting that specific conformations of GSTs are important for such activities. Complete inhibition of the reaction by low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide (10 microM) demonstrated that intact protein thiols are required for the isomerase activities of GSTs.
PubMed ID: 9581548
MeSH Terms: Animals; Catalysis; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology; Ethylmaleimide/pharmacology; Glutathione Transferase/antagonists & inhibitors; Glutathione Transferase/metabolism*; Glutathione/metabolism; Isomerases/antagonists & inhibitors; Isomerases/metabolism*; Isotretinoin/chemistry; Isotretinoin/metabolism*; Kinetics; Liver/enzymology; Rats; Stereoisomerism; Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology; Tretinoin/chemistry; Tretinoin/metabolism*