Title: In-Depth Dissection of the P133R Mutation in Steroid 5β-Reductase (AKR1D1): A Molecular Basis of Bile Acid Deficiency.
Authors: Chen, Mo; Jin, Yi; Penning, Trevor M
Published In Biochemistry, (2015 Oct 20)
Abstract: Human steroid-5β-reductase (aldo-keto reductase 1D1, AKR1D1) stereospecifically reduces Δ(4)-3-ketosteroids to 5β-dihydrosteroids and is essential for steroid hormone metabolism and bile acid biosynthesis. Genetic defects in AKR1D1 cause bile acid deficiency that leads to life threatening neonatal hepatitis and cholestasis. The disease-associated P133R mutation caused significant decreases in catalytic efficiency with both the representative steroid (cortisone) and the bile acid precursor (7α-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one) substrates. Pro133 is a second shell residue to the steroid binding channel and is distal to both the cofactor binding site and the catalytic center. Strikingly, the P133R mutation caused over a 40-fold increase in Kd values for the NADP(H) cofactors and increased the rate of release of NADP(+) from the enzyme by 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the wild type enzyme. By contrast the effect of the mutation on Kd values for steroids were 10-fold or less. The reduced affinity for the cofactor suggests that the mutant exists largely in the less stable cofactor-free form in the cell. Using stopped-flow spectroscopy, a significant reduction in the rate of the chemical step was observed in multiple turnover reactions catalyzed by the P133R mutant, possibly due to the altered position of NADPH. Thus, impaired NADPH binding and hydride transfer is the molecular basis for bile acid deficiency in patients with the P133R mutation. Results revealed that optimal cofactor binding is vulnerable to distant structural perturbation, which may apply to other disease-associated mutations in AKR1D1, all of which occur at conserved residues and are unstable.
PubMed ID: 26418565
MeSH Terms: Bile Acids and Salts/deficiency*; Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism; Binding Sites; Humans; Models, Molecular; NADP/metabolism*; Oxidoreductases/chemistry; Oxidoreductases/genetics*; Oxidoreductases/metabolism*; Point Mutation; Protein Binding; Steroids/metabolism; Substrate Specificity