Title: Minimally Invasive Saliva Testing to Monitor Norovirus Infection in Community Settings.
Authors: Pisanic, Nora; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Colquechagua, Fabiola D; François, Ruthly; Exum, Natalie; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Schwab, Kellogg J; Granger, Douglas A; Detrick, Barbara; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Mayta, Holger; Sánchez, Gerardo J; Gilman, Robert H; Heaney, Christopher D; Vinjé, Jan; Kosek, Margaret N
Published In J Infect Dis, (2019 04 08)
Abstract: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Routine norovirus diagnosis requires stool collection. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a noninvasive method to diagnose norovirus to complement stool diagnostics and to facilitate studies on transmission.A multiplex immunoassay to measure salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to 5 common norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GII.2, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17) was developed. The assay was validated using acute and convalescent saliva samples collected from Peruvian children <5 years of age with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-diagnosed norovirus infections (n = 175) and controls (n = 32). The assay sensitivity and specificity were calculated to determine infection status based on fold rise of salivary norovirus genotype-specific IgG using norovirus genotype from stool as reference.The salivary assay detected recent norovirus infections and correctly assigned the infecting genotype. Sensitivity was 71% and specificity was 96% across the evaluated genotypes compared to PCR-diagnosed norovirus infection.This saliva-based assay will be a useful tool to monitor norovirus transmission in high-risk settings such as daycare centers or hospitals. Cross-reactivity is limited between the tested genotypes, which represent the most commonly circulating genotypes.
PubMed ID: 30517651
MeSH Terms: Antibodies, Viral/immunology; Caliciviridae Infections/diagnosis*; Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology; Caliciviridae Infections/virology; Case-Control Studies; Child, Preschool; Feces/virology; Humans; Immunoglobulin G/immunology; Norovirus/genetics; Norovirus/immunology; Peru/epidemiology; ROC Curve; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Saliva/immunology; Saliva/virology*; Sensitivity and Specificity