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Publication Detail

Title: Role of Y-family translesion DNA polymerases in replication stress: Implications for new cancer therapeutic targets.

Authors: Tonzi, Peter; Huang, Tony T

Published In DNA Repair (Amst), (2019 06)

Abstract: DNA replication stress, defined as the slowing or stalling of replication forks, is considered an emerging hallmark of cancer and a major contributor to genomic instability associated with tumorigenesis (Macheret and Halazonetis, 2015). Recent advances have been made in attempting to target DNA repair factors involved in alleviating replication stress to potentiate genotoxic treatments. Various inhibitors of ATR and Chk1, the two major kinases involved in the intra-S-phase checkpoint, are currently in Phase I and II clinical trials [2]. In addition, currently approved inhibitors of Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) show synthetic lethality in cells that lack double-strand break repair such as in BRCA1/2 deficient tumors [3]. These drugs have also been shown to exacerbate replication stress by creating a DNA-protein crosslink, termed PARP 'trapping', and this is now thought to contribute to the therapeutic efficacy. Translesion synthesis (TLS) is a mechanism whereby special repair DNA polymerases accommodate and tolerate various DNA lesions to allow for damage bypass and continuation of DNA replication (Yang and Gao, 2018). This class of proteins is best characterized by the Y-family, encompassing DNA polymerases (Pols) Kappa, Eta, Iota, and Rev1. While best studied for their ability to bypass physical lesions on the DNA, there is accumulating evidence for these proteins in coping with various natural replication fork barriers and alleviating replication stress. In this mini-review, we will highlight some of these recent advances, and discuss why targeting the TLS pathway may be a mechanism of enhancing cancer-associated replication stress. Exacerbation of replication stress can lead to increased genome instability, which can be toxic to cancer cells and represent a therapeutic vulnerability.

PubMed ID: 30954011 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Animals; DNA Replication*/drug effects; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/metabolism*; Humans; Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods*; Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Neoplasms/enzymology; Neoplasms/genetics*; Stress, Physiological/drug effects; Stress, Physiological/genetics*

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