Title: 3-Ethenylpyridine Measured in Urine of Active and Passive Smokers: A Promising Biomarker and Toxicological Implications.
Authors: Liu, Jia; Benowitz, Neal L; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Havel, Christopher M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Strasser, Andrew A; Jacob 3rd, Peyton
Published In Chem Res Toxicol, (2021 06 21)
Abstract: In studies of tobacco toxicology, including comparisons of different tobacco products and exposure to secondhand or thirdhand smoke, exposure assessment using biomarkers is often useful. Some studies have indicated that most of the toxicity of tobacco smoke is due to gas-phase compounds. 3-Ethenylpyridine (3-EP) is a major nicotine pyrolysis product occurring in the gas phase of tobacco smoke. It has been used extensively as an environmental tracer for tobacco smoke. 3-EP would be expected to be a useful tobacco smoke biomarker as well, but nothing has been published about its metabolism and excretion in humans. In this Article we describe a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) GC-MS/MS method for determination of 3-EP in human urine and its application to the determination of 3-EP in the urine of smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke. We conclude that 3-EP is a promising biomarker that could be useful in studies of tobacco smoke exposure and toxicology. We also point out the paucity of data on 3-EP toxicity and suggest that additional studies are needed.
PubMed ID: 33998799
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers/urine; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Humans; Molecular Structure; Pyridines/adverse effects*; Pyridines/chemistry; Pyridines/urine*; Smokers; Solid Phase Microextraction; Vinyl Compounds/adverse effects*; Vinyl Compounds/chemistry; Vinyl Compounds/urine*