Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: High prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology among workers in the Mesoamerican Nephropathy Occupational Study.

Authors: Keogh, Sinead A; Leibler, Jessica H; Sennett Decker, Caryn M; Amador Velázquez, Juan Jose; Jarquin, Emmanuel R; Lopez-Pilarte, Damaris; Garcia-Trabanino, Ramon; Delgado, Iris S; Petropoulos, Zoe E; Friedman, David J; Amador Sánchez, Magaly Rosario; Guevara, Raul; McClean, Michael D; Brooks, Daniel R; Scammell, Madeleine K

Published In BMC Nephrol, (2022 Jul 07)

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is extremely high along the Pacific coast of Central America, particularly among sugarcane workers. The Mesoamerican Nephropathy Occupational Study (MANOS) is a prospective cohort study of CKDu among agricultural and non-agricultural workers in El Salvador and Nicaragua. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the MANOS cohort recruitment, baseline data collection, and CKDu prevalence after two rounds. METHODS: Workers with no known diabetes, hypertension, or CKD were recruited from sugarcane, corn, plantain, brickmaking, and road construction industries (n = 569). Investigators administered questionnaires, collected biological samples, and observed workers for three consecutive workdays at the worksite. Serum specimens were analyzed for kidney function parameters, and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). At six months, serum was collected again prior to the work shift. CKD at baseline is defined as eGFR ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73m2 at both timepoints. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated by industry, country, and demographic measures. Kidney function parameters were compared by CKD status. RESULTS: Prevalence of CKD at baseline was 7.4% (n = 42). Age-standardized prevalence was highest in Salvadoran sugarcane (14.1%), followed by Salvadoran corn (11.6%), and Nicaraguan brickmaking (8.1%). Nicaraguan sugarcane had the lowest prevalence, likely due to kidney function screenings prior to employment. CONCLUSION: Despite efforts to enroll participants without CKD, our identification of prevalent CKD among agricultural and non-agricultural workers in the MANOS cohort indicates notable kidney disease in the region, particularly among sugarcane workers.

PubMed ID: 35794550 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication

to Top