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Publication Detail

Title: Nonylphenol-mediated CYP induction is PXR-dependent: The use of humanized mice and human hepatocytes suggests that hPXR is less sensitive than mouse PXR to nonylphenol treatment.

Authors: Mota, Linda C; Barfield, Christina; Hernandez, Juan P; Baldwin, William S

Published In Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, (2011 May 1)

Abstract: Nonylphenol (NP), a by-product of alkylphenol ethoxylates, is a pervasive surfactant that activates the xenosensing nuclear receptor, the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) in transactivation assays in vitro. We are interested in determining if NP activates PXR in vivo, determining if hPXR and mPXR act similarly, and investigating the role of PXR in protecting individuals from NP. Wild-type (WT), PXR-null, and humanized PXR (hPXR) mice were treated with NP at 0, 50 or 75mg/kg/day for one week, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction, liver histopathology, and serum NP concentrations were examined. WT mice treated with NP showed induction of Cyp2b, and male-specific induction of Cyp2c and Cyp3a. CYPs were not induced in PXR-null mice, demonstrating that PXR is necessary for NP-mediated CYP induction. CAR-mediated CYP induction was not observed in the PXR-null mice despite previous data demonstrating that NP is also a CAR activator. hPXR mice only showed moderate Cyp induction, suggesting that hPXR is not as sensitive to NP as mPXR in vivo. NP-mediated Cyp3a induction from three human hepatocyte donors was not significant, confirming that hPXR is not very sensitive to NP-mediated CYP induction. Lastly, mice with PXR (mPXR and hPXR) showed lower NP serum concentrations than PXR-null mice treated with NP suggesting that PXR plays a role in decreasing liver toxicity by basally regulating phase I-III detoxification enzymes that promote the metabolism and elimination of NP. In summary, PXR is required for NP-mediated CYP-induction, mPXR mediates greater CYP induction than hPXR in vivo, and the presence of PXR, especially mPXR, is associated with altered histopathology and increased clearance of NP.

PubMed ID: 21376070 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Animals; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/biosynthesis*; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics; DNA/chemistry; DNA/genetics; Enzyme Induction/drug effects; Female; Hepatocytes/drug effects; Hepatocytes/enzymology; Hepatocytes/metabolism; Histocytochemistry; Humans; Immunoblotting; Liver/drug effects*; Liver/enzymology; Liver/metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Phenols/blood; Phenols/pharmacology*; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Random Allocation; Receptors, Steroid/metabolism*

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