Title: Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor.
Authors: Karimullina, Elina; Li, Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Baldwin, William S
Published In Aquat Toxicol, (2012 Jul 15)
Abstract: Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.
PubMed ID: 22466357
MeSH Terms: Animals; Daphnia/classification; Daphnia/drug effects*; Daphnia/genetics; Daphnia/metabolism*; Enzyme Activation/drug effects; Ligands; Luciferases/metabolism; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeny; Protein Binding; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/isolation & purification; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism*; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid; Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacology*; Xenobiotics/pharmacology*