Title: The HR97 (NR1L) group of nuclear receptors: a new group of nuclear receptors discovered in Daphnia species.
Authors: Li, Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Baldwin, William S
Published In Gen Comp Endocrinol, (2014 Sep 15)
Abstract: The recently sequenced Daphnia pulex genome revealed the NR1L nuclear receptor group consisting of three novel receptors. Phylogenetic studies show that this group is related to the NR1I group (CAR/PXR/VDR) and the NR1J group (HR96), and were subsequently named HR97a/b/g. Each of the HR97 paralogs from Daphnia magna, a commonly used crustacean in toxicity testing, was cloned, sequenced, and partially characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HR97 receptors are present in primitive arthropods such as the chelicerates but lost in insects. qPCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrate that each of the receptors is expressed near or at reproductive maturity, and that HR97g, the most ancient of the HR97 receptors, is primarily expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, mandibular region, and ovaries, consistent with a role in reproduction. Transactivation assays using an HR97a/b/g-GAL4 chimera indicate that unlike Daphnia HR96 that is promiscuous with respect to ligand recognition, the HR97 receptors do not respond to many of the ligands that activate CAR/PXR/HR96 nuclear receptors. Only three putative ligands of HR97 receptors were identified in this study: pyriproxyfen, methyl farnesoate, and arachidonic acid. Only arachidonic acid, which acts as an inverse agonist, alters HR97g activity at concentrations that would be considered within physiologically relevant ranges. Overall, this study demonstrates that, although closely related to the promiscuous receptors in the NR1I and NR1J groups, the HR97 receptors are mostly likely not multi-xenobiotic sensors, but rather may perform physiological functions, potentially in reproduction, unique to crustaceans and other non-insect arthropod groups.
PubMed ID: 25092536
MeSH Terms: Animals; Blotting, Western; Cloning, Molecular; Daphnia/genetics*; Daphnia/metabolism; Immunoenzyme Techniques; Phylogeny; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics*; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Transcriptional Activation