Title: Characterization of Interstrand DNA-DNA Cross-Links Using the α-Hemolysin Protein Nanopore.
Authors: Zhang, Xinyue; Price, Nathan E; Fang, Xi; Yang, Zhiyu; Gu, Li-Qun; Gates, Kent S
Published In ACS Nano, (2015 Dec 22)
Abstract: Nanopore-based sensors have been studied extensively as potential tools for DNA sequencing, characterization of epigenetic modifications such as 5-methylcytosine, and detection of microRNA biomarkers. In the studies described here, the α-hemolysin protein nanopore embedded in a lipid bilayer was used for the detection and characterization of interstrand cross-links in duplex DNA. Interstrand cross-links are important lesions in medicinal chemistry and toxicology because they prevent the strand separation that is required for read-out of genetic information from DNA in cells. In addition, interstrand cross-links are used for the stabilization of duplex DNA in structural biology and materials science. Cross-linked DNA fragments produced unmistakable current signatures in the nanopore experiment. Some cross-linked substrates gave irreversible current blocks of >10 min, while others produced long current blocks (10-100 s) before the double-stranded DNA cross-link translocated through the α-hemolysin channel in a voltage-driven manner. The duration of the current block for the different cross-linked substrates examined here may be dictated by the stability of the duplex region left in the vestibule of the nanopore following partial unzipping of the cross-linked DNA. Construction of calibration curves measuring the frequency of cross-link blocking events (1/τon) as a function of cross-link concentration enabled quantitative determination of the amounts of cross-linked DNA present in samples. The unique current signatures generated by cross-linked DNA in the α-HL nanopore may enable the detection and characterization of DNA cross-links that are important in toxicology, medicine, and materials science.
PubMed ID: 26563913
MeSH Terms: Cross-Linking Reagents; DNA Damage; DNA/chemistry*; DNA/metabolism*; Hemolysin Proteins/chemistry*; Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism*; Nanopores*; Nucleic Acid Conformation