Title: Dietary challenges differentially affect activity and sleep/wake behavior in mus musculus: Isolating independent associations with diet/energy balance and body weight.
Authors: Perron, Isaac J; Keenan, Brendan T; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Lahens, Nicholas F; Yohn, Nicole L; Shockley, Keith R; Pack, Allan I; Veasey, Sigrid C
Published In PLoS One, (2018)
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected to the diet switch feeding paradigm, generating groups with various body weights and energetic imbalances. Spontaneous activity patterns, blood metabolite levels, and unbiased gene expression of the nutrient-sensing ventral hypothalamus (using RNA-sequencing) were measured, and these metrics were compared using standardized multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: Spontaneous activity patterns were negatively related to body weight (p<0.0001) but not diet/energy balance (p = 0.63). Both body weight and diet/energy balance predicted circulating glucose and insulin levels, while body weight alone predicted plasma leptin levels. Regarding gene expression within the ventral hypothalamus, only two genes responded to diet/energy balance (neuropeptide y [npy] and agouti-related peptide [agrp]), while others were related only to body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results demonstrate that individual components of obesity-specifically obesogenic diets/energy imbalance and elevated body mass-can have independent effects on metabolic and behavioral outcomes. This work highlights the shortcomings of using body mass-based indices to assess metabolic health, and identifies novel associations between blood biomarkers, neural gene expression, and animal behavior following dietary challenges.
PubMed ID: 29746501
MeSH Terms: Agouti-Related Protein/metabolism; Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology*; Biomarkers/blood; Body Weight/physiology*; Circadian Rhythm/physiology*; Diet/methods; Energy Intake/physiology; Energy Metabolism/physiology*; Gene Expression/physiology; Hypothalamus/metabolism; Hypothalamus/physiology; Leptin/blood; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neuropeptide Y/metabolism; Obesity/blood; Obesity/metabolism; Obesity/physiopathology; Sleep/physiology*; Wakefulness/physiology*