Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: Factor Structure for Chronic Stress Before and During Pregnancy by Racial/Ethnic Group.

Authors: Kim, Sangmi; Im, Eun-Ok; Liu, Jianghong; Ulrich, Connie

Published In West J Nurs Res, (2019 05)

Abstract: This study aimed to explore race/ethnicity-specific dimensionalities of chronic stress before and during pregnancy for non-Hispanic (N-H) White, N-H Black, Hispanic, and Asian women in the United States. This study analyzed the data among 6,850 women from the New York City and Washington State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2004-2007) linked with birth certificates. Separate exploratory factor analysis was conducted by race/ethnicity using a maximum-likelihood extraction method with 26 chronic stress items before and during pregnancy. Correlations and internal consistency reliabilities among items and latent factors determined race/ethnicity-specific factor structures of chronic stress. Chronic stress was race/ethnicity-distinctive and multidimensional with low correlations among the factors ( r = .07-.28, p < .05). Despite financial hardship, perceived isolation, and physical violence underlying chronic stress among the racial/ethnic groups, intergroup variations existed under each group's cultural or sociopolitical contexts. This study could help develop targeted strategies to intervene with women's chronic stressors before childbirth.

PubMed ID: 30019628 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Educational Status; Ethnic Groups/psychology*; Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data; European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Female; Hispanic Americans/psychology; Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data; Humans; Income/statistics & numerical data; New York City; Pregnancy; Risk Assessment/methods; Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data; Stress, Psychological/etiology; Stress, Psychological/psychology*; Washington

to Top