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Title: Estrogen sulfotransferase in the metabolism of estrogenic drugs and in the pathogenesis of diseases.

Authors: Barbosa, Anne Caroline S; Feng, Ye; Yu, Chaohui; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

Published In Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, (2019 Apr)

Abstract: Biotransformation is important in the metabolism of endobiotics and xenobiotics. This process comprises the activity of phase I and phase II enzymes. Estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1 or EST) is a phase II conjugating enzyme that belongs to the family of cytosolic sulfotransferases. The expression of SULT1E1 can be detected in many tissues, including the liver. SULT1E1 catalyzes the transfer of a sulfate group from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to any available hydroxyl group in estrogenic molecules. The substrates of SULT1E1 include the endogenous and synthetic estrogens. Upon SULT1E1-mediated sulfation, the hydrosolubility of estrogens increases, preventing the binding between the sulfated estrogens and the estrogen receptor (ER). This sulfated state of the estrogens is not irreversible, as the steroid sulfatase (STS) can convert sulfoconjugated estrogens to free estrogens. The expression of SULT1E1 is inducible by several diseases that involve tissue inflammation, such as type 2 diabetes, sepsis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Areas covered: This systematic literature review aims to summarize the role of SULT1E1 in the metabolism of estrogenic drugs and xenobiotics, and the role of SULT1E1 in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer, metabolic disease, sepsis, liver injury, and cystic fibrosis. Meanwhile, ablation or pharmacological inhibition of SULT1E1 can affect the outcomes of the aforementioned diseases. Expert opinion: In addition to its role in metabolizing estrogenic drugs, SULT1E1 is unexpectedly being unveiled as a mediator for the disease effect on estrogen metabolism and homeostasis. Meanwhile, because the expression and activity of SULT1E1 can affect the outcome of diseases, the same sulfotransferase and the reversing enzymes STS can be potential therapeutic targets to prevent or manage diseases. Accumulating evidence suggest that the physiological and pathophysiological effects of SULT1E1 can be estrogen-independent and it is necessary to elucidate what other possible substrates may be recognized by the enzyme. Moreover, human studies are paramount to confirm the human relevance of the animal studies.

PubMed ID: 30822161 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Animals; Cytosol/enzymology; Cytosol/metabolism; Estrogens/metabolism*; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Humans; Liver/enzymology; Liver/metabolism; Sulfotransferases/genetics; Sulfotransferases/metabolism*; Xenobiotics/metabolism*

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