Title: Dynamical properties of elemental metabolism distinguish attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from autism spectrum disorder.
Authors: Austin, Christine; Curtin, Paul; Curtin, Austen; Gennings, Chris; Arora, Manish; Tammimies, Kristiina; Isaksson, Johan; Willfors, Charlotte; Bölte, Sven
Published In Transl Psychiatry, (2019 09 25)
Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are neurodevelopmental conditions of overlapping etiologies and phenotypes. For ASD, we recently reported altered elemental metabolic patterns in the form of short and irregular zinc and copper cycles. Here, we extend the application of these biomarkers of prenatal and early postnatal elemental metabolism to distinguish between individuals diagnosed with ADHD and/or ASD and neurotypical controls. We recruited twins discordant for ADHD, ASD and other neurodevelopmental diagnoses from national twin studies in Sweden (N = 74) diagnosed according to DSM-5 clinical consensus and standardized psychiatric instruments. Detailed temporal profiles of exposure to 10 metals over the prenatal and early childhood periods were measured using tooth biomarkers. We used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to characterize properties of cyclical metabolic patterns of these metals. Regularity (determinism) and complexity (entropy) of elemental cycles was consistently reduced in ADHD for cobalt, lead, and vanadium (determinism: cobalt, β = -0.03, P = 0.017; lead, β = -0.03, P = 0.016; and vanadium, β = -0.03, P = 0.01. Entropy: cobalt, β = -0.13, P = 0.017; lead, β = -0.18, P = 0.016; and vanadium, β = -0.15, P = 0.008). Further, we found elemental pathways and dynamical features specific to ADHD vs ASD, and unique characteristics associated with ADHD/ASD combined presentation. Dysregulation of cyclical processes in elemental metabolism during prenatal and early postnatal development not only encompasses pathways shared by ADHD and ASD, but also comprise features specific to either condition.
PubMed ID: 31551411
MeSH Terms: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis*; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/metabolism; Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis*; Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism; Child; Cobalt/metabolism*; Diagnosis, Differential; Diseases in Twins/diagnosis; Diseases in Twins/metabolism; Female; Humans; Lead/metabolism*; Male; Vanadium/metabolism*