Title: Cell cycle regulation of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata: Growth, photosynthetic efficiency and toxin production.
Authors: Jia, Ying; Gao, Han; Tong, Mengmeng; Anderson, Donald M
Published In Harmful Algae, (2019 11)
Abstract: The mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata is a widely distributed diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) producer. Toxin variability of Dinophysis spp. has been well studied, but little is known of the manner in which toxin production is regulated throughout the cell cycle in these species, in part due to their mixotrophic characteristics. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate cell cycle regulation of growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and toxin production in D. acuminata. First, a three-step synchronization approach, termed "starvation-feeding-dark", was used to achieve a high degree of synchrony of Dinophysis cells by starving the cells for 2 weeks, feeding them once, and then placing them in darkness for 58 h. The synchronized cells started DNA synthesis (S phase) 10 h after being released into the light, initiated G2 growth stage eight hours later, and completed mitosis (M phase) 2 h before lights were turned on. The toxin content of three dominant toxins, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), followed a common pattern of increasing in G1 phase, decreasing on entry into the S phase, then increasing again in S phase and decreasing in M phase during the diel cell cycle. Specific toxin production rates were positive throughout the G1 and S phases, but negative during the transition from G1 to S phase and late in M phase, the latter reflecting cell division. All toxins were initially induced by the light and positively correlated with the percentage of cells in S phase, indicating that biosynthesis of Dinophysis toxins might be under circadian regulation and be most active during DNA synthesis.
PubMed ID: 31672228
MeSH Terms: Cell Cycle; Dinoflagellida*; Humans; Marine Toxins*; Okadaic Acid; Shellfish Poisoning*