Title: Chronic exposure to cadmium induces a malignant transformation of benign prostate epithelial cells.
Authors: Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Dahiya, Nisha R; Tyagi, Ashish; Kolluru, Venkatesh; Saran, Uttara; Baby, Becca V; States, J Christopher; Haddad, Ahmed Q; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil
Published In Oncogenesis, (2020 Feb 17)
Abstract: Epidemiological evidence suggests that cadmium (Cd) is one of the causative factors of prostate cancer, but the effect of Cd on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether Cd exposure could malignantly transform BPH1 cells and, if so, to dissect the mechanism of action. We deciphered the molecular signaling responsible for BPH1 transformation via RNA-sequencing and determined that Cd induced the expression of zinc finger of the cerebellum 2 (ZIC2) in BPH1 cells. We noted Cd exposure increased ZIC2 expression in the Cd-transformed BPH1 cells that in turn promoted anchorage-independent spheroids and increased expression of stem cell drivers, indicating their role in stem cell renewal. Subsequent silencing of ZIC2 expression in transformed cells inhibited spheroid formation, stem cell marker expression, and tumor growth in nude mice. At the molecular level, ZIC2 interacts with the glioma-associated oncogene family (GLI) zinc finger 1 (GLI1), which activates prosurvival factors (nuclear factor NFκB, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2), as well as an X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)) signaling in Cd-exposed BPH1 cells. Conversely, overexpression of ZIC2 in BPH1 cells caused spheroid formation confirming the oncogenic function of ZIC2. ZIC2 activation and GLI1 signaling induction by Cd exposure in primary BPH cells confirmed the clinical significance of this oncogenic function. Finally, human BPH specimens had increased ZIC2 versus adjacent healthy tissues. Thus, we report direct evidence that Cd exposure induces malignant transformation of BPH via activation of ZIC2 and GLI1 signaling.
PubMed ID: 32066655
MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication