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Title: Insights into dental mineralization from three heritable mineralization disorders.

Authors: Chavez, Michael B; Kramer, Kaitrin; Chu, Emily Y; Thumbigere-Math, Vivek; Foster, Brian L

Published In J Struct Biol, (2020 10 01)

Abstract: Teeth are comprised of three unique mineralized tissues, enamel, dentin, and cementum, that are susceptible to developmental defects similar to those affecting bone. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), caused by PHEX mutations, leads to increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-driven hypophosphatemia and local extracellular matrix disturbances. Hypophosphatasia (HPP), caused by ALPL mutations, results in increased levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a mineralization inhibitor. Generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI), caused by ENPP1 mutations, results in vascular calcification due to decreased PPi, later compounded by FGF23-driven hypophosphatemia. In this perspective, we compare and contrast dental defects in primary teeth associated with XLH, HPP, and GACI, briefly reviewing genetic and biochemical features of these disorders and findings of clinical and preclinical studies to date, including some of our own recent observations. The distinct dental defects associated with the three heritable mineralization disorders reflect unique processes of the respective dental hard tissues, revealing insights into their development and clues about pathological mechanisms underlying such disorders.

PubMed ID: 32758526 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism; Animals; Calcification, Physiologic/physiology*; Extracellular Matrix/metabolism; Extracellular Matrix/physiology; Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/metabolism; Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/physiopathology; Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism; Humans; Hypophosphatasia/metabolism; Hypophosphatasia/physiopathology; Tooth/metabolism; Tooth/physiology*; Vascular Calcification/metabolism; Vascular Calcification/physiopathology

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