Title: Carcinogenesis: Failure of resolution of inflammation?
Authors: Fishbein, Anna; Hammock, Bruce D; Serhan, Charles N; Panigrahy, Dipak
Published In Pharmacol Ther, (2021 Feb)
Abstract: Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment is a hallmark of cancer and is recognized as a key characteristic of carcinogens. However, the failure of resolution of inflammation in cancer is only recently being understood. Products of arachidonic acid and related fatty acid metabolism called eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, and epoxyeicosanoids, critically regulate inflammation, as well as its resolution. The resolution of inflammation is now appreciated to be an active biochemical process regulated by endogenous specialized pro-resolving lipid autacoid mediators which combat infections and stimulate tissue repair/regeneration. Environmental and chemical human carcinogens, including aflatoxins, asbestos, nitrosamines, alcohol, and tobacco, induce tumor-promoting inflammation and can disrupt the resolution of inflammation contributing to a devastating global cancer burden. While mechanisms of carcinogenesis have focused on genotoxic activity to induce mutations, nongenotoxic mechanisms such as inflammation and oxidative stress promote genotoxicity, proliferation, and mutations. Moreover, carcinogens initiate oxidative stress to synergize with inflammation and DNA damage to fuel a vicious feedback loop of cell death, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. In contrast, stimulation of resolution of inflammation may prevent carcinogenesis by clearance of cellular debris via macrophage phagocytosis and inhibition of an eicosanoid/cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory mediators. Controlling the host inflammatory response and its resolution in carcinogen-induced cancers will be critical to reducing carcinogen-induced morbidity and mortality. Here we review the recent evidence that stimulation of resolution of inflammation, including pro-resolution lipid mediators and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, may be a new chemopreventive approach to prevent carcinogen-induced cancer that should be evaluated in humans.
PubMed ID: 32891711
MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication