Title: Exploring carbon particle type and plasma treatment to improve electrochemical properties of stencil-printed carbon electrodes.
Authors: Kava, Alyssa A; Henry, Charles S
Published In Talanta, (2021 Jan 01)
Abstract: Stencil-printing conductive carbon inks has revolutionized the development of inexpensive, disposable and portable electrochemical sensors. However, stencil-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) typically suffer from poor electrochemical properties. While many surface pretreatments and modifications have been tested to improve the electrochemical activity of SPCEs, the bulk composition of the inks used for printing has been largely ignored. Recent studies of other carbon composite electrode materials show significant evidence that the conductive carbon particle component is strongly related to electrochemical performance. However, such a study has not been carried out with SPCEs. In this work, we perform a systematic characterization of SPCEs made with different carbon particle types including graphite particles, glassy carbon microparticles and carbon black. The relationship between carbon particle characteristics including particle size, particle purity, and particle morphology as well as particle mass loading on the fabrication and electrochemical properties of SPCEs is studied. SPCEs were plasma treated for surface activation and the electrochemical properties of both untreated and plasma treated SPCEs are also compared. SPCEs displayed distinct analytical utilities characterized through solvent window and double layer capacitance. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of several standard redox probes, FcTMA+, ferri/ferrocyanide, and pAP was used to establish the effects of carbon particle type and plasma treatment on electron transfer kinetics of SPCEs. CV of the biologically relevant molecules uric acid, NADH and dopamine was employed to further illustrate the differences in sensing and fouling characteristics of SPCEs fabricated with different carbon particle types. SEM imaging revealed significant differences in the SPCE surface microstructures. This systematic study demonstrates that the electrochemical properties of SPCEs can be tuned and significantly improved through careful selection of carbon particle type and plasma cleaning with a goal toward the development of better performing electrochemical point-of-need sensors.
PubMed ID: 33076109
MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication