Title: EpOMEs act as immune suppressors in a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua.
Authors: Vatanparast, Mohammad; Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Dong-Hee; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce; Kim, Yonggyun
Published In Sci Rep, (2020 11 19)
Abstract: Epoxyoctadecamonoenoic acids (EpOMEs) are epoxide derivatives of linoleic acid (9,12-octadecadienoic acid) and include 9,10-EpOME and 12,13-EpOME. They are synthesized by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and degraded by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Although EpOMEs are well known to play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes in mammals, their role is not well understood in insects. This study chemically identified their presence in insect tissues: 941.8 pg/g of 9,10-EpOME and 2,198.3 pg/g of 12,13-EpOME in fat body of a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua. Injection of 9,10-EpOME or 12,13-EpOME into larvae suppressed the cellular immune responses induced by bacterial challenge. EpOME treatment also suppressed the expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Among 139 S. exigua CYPs, an ortholog (SE51385) to human EpOME synthase was predicted and its expression was highly inducible upon bacterial challenge. RNA interference (RNAi) of SE51385 prevented down-regulation of immune responses at a late stage (> 24 h) following bacterial challenge. A soluble epoxide hydrolase (Se-sEH) of S. exigua was predicted and showed specific expression in all development stages and in different larval tissues. Furthermore, its expression levels were highly enhanced by bacterial challenge in different tissues. RNAi reduction of Se-sEH interfered with hemocyte-spreading behavior, nodule formation, and AMP expression. To support the immune association of EpOMEs, urea-based sEH inhibitors were screened to assess their inhibitory activities against cellular and humoral immune responses of S. exigua. 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) was highly potent in suppressing the immune responses. The addition of AUDA to a pathogenic bacterium significantly increased bacterial pathogenicity by suppressing host immune defense. In sum, this study demonstrated that EpOMEs play a crucial role in facilitating anti-inflammatory responses in S. exigua.
PubMed ID: 33214688
MeSH Terms: Adamantane/analogs & derivatives; Adamantane/pharmacology; Animals; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Epoxy Compounds/immunology*; Epoxy Compounds/metabolism; Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology; Fat Body/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation/immunology; Hemocytes/physiology; Immunity, Cellular/drug effects; Immunity, Humoral/drug effects; Immunosuppressive Agents/immunology; Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology; Insect Proteins/immunology; Insect Proteins/metabolism; Larva/growth & development; Larva/immunology; Lauric Acids/pharmacology; Oleic Acids/immunology*; Oleic Acids/metabolism; Oleic Acids/pharmacology; Spodoptera/drug effects; Spodoptera/genetics; Spodoptera/immunology*; Spodoptera/metabolism