Title: Geographic Differences in Lung Cancer Incidence: A Study of a Major Metropolitan Area within Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Authors: Zhu, Yaqian; McKeon, Thomas P; Tam, Vicky; Vachani, Anil; Penning, Trevor M; Hwang, Wei-Ting
Published In Int J Environ Res Public Health, (2020 12 18)
Abstract: This study investigated the geographic variation and the clustering of lung cancer incidence rates in Philadelphia and the surrounding areas using addresses at the time of diagnosis. Using 60,844 cases from Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, we calculated and mapped the age-adjusted incidence rates for five Pennsylvania (PA) counties near Philadelphia between 1998-2007 and 2008-2017. We identified ZIP codes with significantly higher incidence rates than the state rates and examined their demographic and exposure characteristics. Further, we tested for spatial autocorrelation and identified spatial clusters using Moran's I statistic. Our results showed that approximately one in four ZIP codes had an incidence rate that was significantly higher than the PA state rate in each period studied. Clusters of higher incidences were detected in the southeastern part of PA bordering New Jersey. These areas tended to be more populated, of lower socioeconomic status, and closer to manufacturing facilities and major highways. Possibly driven by the community and environmental factors, the observed differences in disease incidence suggest the importance of including residential location in risk assessment tools for lung cancer.
PubMed ID: 33352953
MeSH Terms: Cluster Analysis; Humans; Incidence; Lung Neoplasms*/epidemiology; New Jersey/epidemiology; Philadelphia/epidemiology