Title: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance mixtures and gestational weight gain among mothers in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment study.
Authors: Romano, Megan E; Gallagher, Lisa G; Eliot, Melissa N; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Aimin; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce; Braun, Joseph M
Published In Int J Hyg Environ Health, (2021 Jan)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent chemicals commonly used in the production of household and consumer goods. While exposure to PFAS has been associated with greater adiposity in children and adults, less is known about associations with gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: We quantified using mass spectrometry perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal serum from 18 ± 5 weeks' gestation (mean ± standard deviation (std)) in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, Ohio) (n = 277). After abstracting weight data from medical records, we calculated GWG from 16 ± 2 weeks' gestation (mean ± std) to the measured weight at the last visit or at delivery, rate of weight gain in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (GWR), and total weight gain z-scores standardized for gestational age at delivery and pre-pregnancy BMI. We investigated covariate-adjusted associations between individual PFAS using multivariable linear regression; we assessed potential effect measure modification (EMM) by overweight/obese status (pre-pregnancy BMI<25 kg/m2 v. ≥25 kg/m2). Using weighted quantile sum regression, we assessed the combined influence of these four PFAS on GWG and GWR. RESULTS: Each doubling in serum concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA was associated with a small increase in GWG (range 0.5-0.8 lbs) and GWR (range 0.03-0.05 lbs/week) among all women. The association of PFNA with GWG was stronger among women with BMI≥25 kg/m2 (β = 2.6 lbs; 95% CI:-0.8, 6.0) than those with BMI<25 kg/m2 (β = -1.0 lbs; 95% CI:-3.8, 1.8; p-EMM = 0.10). We observed associations close to the null between PFAS and z-scores and between the PFAS exposure index (a combined summary measure) and the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Although there were consistent small increases in gestational weight gain with increasing PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA serum concentrations in this cohort, the associations were imprecise. Additional investigation of the association of PFAS with GWG in other cohorts would be informative and could consider pre-pregnancy BMI as a potential modifier.
PubMed ID: 33181449
MeSH Terms: Adult; Child; Environmental Pollutants*; Female; Fluorocarbons*; Gestational Weight Gain*; Humans; Mothers; Outcome Assessment, Health Care; Pregnancy; Prospective Studies