Skip Navigation

Publication Detail

Title: Gene-environment interactions between air pollution and biotransformation enzymes and risk of birth defects.

Authors: Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Lee, Cecilia; Lurmann, Fred; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

Published In Birth Defects Res, (2021 May 15)

Abstract: Genetic and environmental factors have been observed to influence risks for birth defects, though few studies have investigated gene-environment interactions. Our aim was to examine the interaction terms of gene variants in biotransformation enzyme pathways and air pollution exposures in relation to risk of several structural birth defects. We evaluated the role of ambient air pollutant exposure (nitrogen dioxide [NO2 ], nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter <10 [PM10 ] and <2.5 [PM2.5 ] microns) during pregnancy and 104 gene variants of biotransformation enzymes from infant bloodspots or buccal cells in a California population-based case-control study in 1997-2006. Cases included cleft lip with or without cleft palate (N = 206), gastroschisis (N = 94), tetralogy of Fallot (N = 69), and dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA; N = 40) and were compared to 208 nonmalformed controls. Overall, the results were not consistent, though did highlight some associations for further investigation as indicated by Wald chi-square test p value <.1. Increased risk of cleft lip was associated with exposure to high PM10 and two CYP gene variants. High PM2.5 and the variant of SLCO1B1 was associated with increased risk of teratology of Fallot. Higher NO2 and two gene variants, CYP2A6 and SLC01B1, were associated with increased risk of d-TGA. Results for gastroschisis were inconsistent in direction and across pollutants. These exploratory results suggest that some individuals based on their genetic background may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution.

PubMed ID: 33569925 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Air Pollution*/adverse effects; Biotransformation; Case-Control Studies; Female; Gene-Environment Interaction; Humans; Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1; Mouth Mucosa; Pregnancy; Transposition of Great Vessels*

to Top