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Title: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance.

Authors: Hill, Bradford G; Rood, Benjamin; Ribble, Amanda; Haberzettl, Petra

Published In Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, (2021 May 01)

Abstract: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling dependent on pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure induces these vascular effects via plasmatic factors, we incubated aortas from naïve mice with plasma isolated from mice exposed to HEPA-filtered air or CAP (9 days) and examined vascular inflammation and insulin and VEGF signaling. We found that treatment of naïve aortas with plasma from CAP-exposed mice activates NF-κBα and induces insulin and VEGF resistance, indicating transmission by plasmatic factor(s). To identify putative factors, we exposed lung-specific ecSOD-transgenic (ecSOD-Tg) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates to CAP at concentrations of either ∼60 µg/m3 (CAP60) or ∼100 µg/m3 (CAP100) and measured the abundance of plasma metabolites by mass spectrometry. In WT mice, both CAP concentrations increased levels of fatty acids such as palmitate, myristate, and palmitoleate and decreased numerous phospholipid species; however, these CAP-induced changes in the plasma lipidome were prevented in ecSOD-Tg mice. Consistent with the literature, we found that fatty acids such as palmitate are sufficient to promote endothelial inflammation. Collectively, our findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure, by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress, promotes unique lipidomic changes characterized by high levels of circulating fatty acids, which are sufficient to trigger vascular pathology.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that circulating plasma constituents are responsible for air pollution-induced vascular pathologies. Inhalation of fine particulate matter (≤PM2.5) promotes a unique form of dyslipidemia that manifests in a manner dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. The air pollution-engendered dyslipidemic phenotype is characterized by elevated free fatty acid species and diminished phospholipid species, which could contribute to vascular inflammation and loss of insulin sensitivity.

PubMed ID: 33666505 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants/toxicity*; Animals; Aorta/drug effects*; Aorta/metabolism; Aorta/pathology; Aortitis/blood; Aortitis/chemically induced*; Aortitis/pathology; Biomarkers/blood; Cells, Cultured; Dyslipidemias/blood; Dyslipidemias/chemically induced*; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism; Humans; Inhalation Exposure; Insulin Resistance*; Insulin/blood; Lipidomics; Lipids/blood*; Lung/drug effects; Lung/metabolism; Male; Metabolome*; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Oxidative Stress/drug effects; Particulate Matter/toxicity*; Superoxide Dismutase/genetics; Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism; Tissue Culture Techniques; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood

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