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Publication Detail

Title: Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors promote DNA damage in ovarian cancer and synergize with ATM/ATR inhibitors.

Authors: Grimley, Edward; Cole, Alexander J; Luong, Thong T; McGonigal, Stacy C; Sinno, Sarah; Yang, Dongli; Bernstein, Kara A; Buckanovich, Ronald J

Published In Theranostics, (2021)

Abstract: Rationale: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes are often upregulated in cancer cells and associated with therapeutic resistance. ALDH enzymes protect cells by metabolizing toxic aldehydes which can induce DNA double stand breaks (DSB). We recently identified a novel ALDH1A family inhibitor (ALDHi), 673A. We hypothesized that 673A, via inhibition of ALDH1A family members, could induce intracellular accumulation of genotoxic aldehydes to cause DSB and that ALDHi could synergize with inhibitors of the ATM and ATR, proteins which direct DSB repair. Methods: We used immunofluorescence to directly assess levels of the aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal and comet assays to evaluate DSB. Western blot was used to evaluate activation of the DNA damage response pathways. Cell counts were performed in the presence of 673A and additional aldehydes or aldehyde scavengers. ALDH inhibition results were confirmed using ALDH1A3 CRISPR knockout. Synergy between 673A and ATM or ATR inhibitors was evaluated using the Chou-Talalay method and confirmed in vivo using cell line xenograft tumor studies. Results: The ALDHi 673A cellular accumulation of toxic aldehydes which induce DNA double strand breaks. This is exacerbated by addition of exogenous aldehydes such as vitamin-A (retinaldehyde) and ameliorated by aldehyde scavengers such as metformin and hydralazine. Importantly, ALDH1A3 knockout cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to ATM/ATR inhibitors. And, ALDHi synergized with inhibitors of ATM and ATR, master regulators of the DSB DNA damage response, both in vitro and in vivo. This synergy was evident in homologous recombination (HR) proficient cell lines. Conclusions: ALDHi can be used to induce DNA DSB in cancer cells and synergize with inhibitors the ATM/ATR pathway. Our data suggest a novel therapeutic approach to target HR proficient ovarian cancer cells.

PubMed ID: 33664846 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family/antagonists & inhibitors*; Aldehyde Oxidoreductases/deficiency; Aldehyde Oxidoreductases/genetics; Aldehydes/metabolism; Aldehydes/toxicity; Animals; Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors*; Cell Line, Tumor; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded; DNA Damage*; Drug Synergism; Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*; Female; Gene Knockout Techniques; Humans; Mice; Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism*; Precision Medicine; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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