Title: A basal-level activity of ATR links replication fork surveillance and stress response.
Authors: Yin, Yandong; Lee, Wei Ting Chelsea; Gupta, Dipika; Xue, Huijun; Tonzi, Peter; Borowiec, James A; Huang, Tony T; Modesti, Mauro; Rothenberg, Eli
Published In Mol Cell, (2021 10 21)
Abstract: Mammalian cells use diverse pathways to prevent deleterious consequences during DNA replication, yet the mechanism by which cells survey individual replisomes to detect spontaneous replication impediments at the basal level, and their accumulation during replication stress, remain undefined. Here, we used single-molecule localization microscopy coupled with high-order-correlation image-mining algorithms to quantify the composition of individual replisomes in single cells during unperturbed replication and under replicative stress. We identified a basal-level activity of ATR that monitors and regulates the amounts of RPA at forks during normal replication. Replication-stress amplifies the basal activity through the increased volume of ATR-RPA interaction and diffusion-driven enrichment of ATR at forks. This localized crowding of ATR enhances its collision probability, stimulating the activation of its replication-stress response. Finally, we provide a computational model describing how the basal activity of ATR is amplified to produce its canonical replication stress response.
PubMed ID: 34473946
MeSH Terms: Algorithms; Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/genetics; Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/metabolism*; Cell Line, Tumor; Checkpoint Kinase 1/genetics; Checkpoint Kinase 1/metabolism; DNA Replication*; DNA, Neoplasm/biosynthesis*; DNA, Neoplasm/genetics; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Kinetics; Mutation; Phosphorylation; Replication Protein A/genetics; Replication Protein A/metabolism; Single Molecule Imaging