Title: Biochemical and photochemical mechanisms that produce different UV-induced mutation spectra.
Authors: Sugiyama, Tomohiko; Keinard, Brianna; Best, Griffin; Sanyal, Mahima R
Published In Mutat Res, (2021 Jul-Dec)
Abstract: Although UV-induced mutagenesis has been studied extensively, the precise mechanisms that convert UV-induced DNA damage into mutations remain elusive. One well-studied mechanism involves DNA polymerase (Pol) η and ζ, which produces C > T transitions during translesion synthesis (TLS) across pyrimidine dimers. We previously proposed another biochemical mechanism that involves multiple UV-irradiations with incubation in the dark in between. The incubation facilitates spontaneous deamination of cytosine in a pyrimidine dimer, and the subsequent UV irradiation induces photolyase-independent (direct) photoreversal that converts cytosine into monomeric uracil residue. In this paper, we first demonstrate that natural sunlight can induce both mutational processes in vitro. The direct photoreversal was also reproduced by monochromatic UVB at 300 nm. We also demonstrate that post-irradiation incubation in the dark is required for both mutational processes, suggesting that cytosine deamination is required for both the Pol η/ζ-dependent and the photoreversal-dependent mechanisms. Another Y-family polymerase Pol ι also mediated a mutagenic TLS on UV-damaged templates when combined with Pol ζ. The Pol ι-dependent mutations were largely independent of post-irradiation incubation, indicating that cytosine deamination was not essential for this mutational process. Sunlight-exposure also induced C > A transversions which were likely caused by oxidation of guanine residues. Finally, we constructed in vitro mutation spectra in a comparable format to cancer mutation signatures. While both Pol η-dependent and photoreversal-dependent spectra showed high similarities to a cancer signature (SBS7a), Pol ι-dependent mutation spectrum has distinct T > A/C substitutions, which are found in another cancer signature (SBS7d). The Pol ι-dependent T > A/C substitutions were resistant to T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase-treatment, suggesting that this mutational process is independent of cis-syn pyrimidine dimers. An updated model about multiple mechanisms of UV-induced mutagenesis is discussed.
PubMed ID: 34563793
MeSH Terms: Cytosine/chemistry; Cytosine/metabolism; DNA Damage; DNA Repair*; DNA, Single-Stranded/genetics; DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/classification; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics*; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/metabolism; DNA/genetics; DNA/metabolism; Humans; Isoenzymes/classification; Isoenzymes/genetics; Isoenzymes/metabolism; Mutation/radiation effects*; Neoplasms/etiology; Neoplasms/genetics*; Neoplasms/pathology; Pyrimidine Dimers/chemistry; Pyrimidine Dimers/metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology; Sunlight/adverse effects; Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects*; Uracil/chemistry; Uracil/metabolism