Title: Interstrand Cross-Link Formation Involving Reaction of a Mispaired Cytosine Residue with an Abasic Site in Duplex DNA.
Authors: Varela, Jacqueline Gamboa; Pierce, Luke E; Guo, Xu; Price, Nathan E; Johnson, Kevin M; Yang, Zhiyu; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S
Published In Chem Res Toxicol, (2021 04 19)
Abstract: The formation of interstrand cross-links in duplex DNA is important in biology, medicine, and biotechnology. Interstrand cross-links arising from the reaction of the aldehyde residue of an abasic (apurinic or AP) site with the exocyclic amino groups of guanine or adenine residues on the opposing strand of duplex DNA have previously been characterized. The canonical nucleobase cytosine has an exocyclic amino group but its ability to form interstrand cross-links by reaction with an AP site has not been characterized before now. Here it is shown that substantial yields of interstrand cross-links are generated in sequences having a mispaired cytosine residue located one nucleotide to the 3'-side of the AP site on the opposing strand (e.g., 5'XA/5'CA, where X = AP). Formation of the dC-AP cross-link is pH-dependent, with significantly higher yields at pH 5 than pH 7. Once formed, the dC-AP cross-link is quite stable, showing less than 5% dissociation over the course of 96 h at pH 7 and 37 °C. No significant yields of cross-link are observed when the cytosine residue is paired with its Watson-Crick partner guanine. It was also shown that a single AP site can engage with multiple nucleobase cross-linking partners in some sequences. Specifically, the dG-AP and dC-AP cross-links coexist in dynamic equilibrium in the sequence 5'CXA/5'CAG (X = AP). In this sequence, the dC-AP cross-link dominates. However, in the presence of NaBH3CN, irreversible reduction of small amounts of the dG-AP cross-link present in the mixture shifts the equilibria away from the dC-AP cross-link toward good yields of the dG-APred cross-link.
PubMed ID: 33784065
MeSH Terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemical synthesis; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*; Cytosine/chemistry*; DNA/chemistry*; Nucleic Acid Conformation