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Title: Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate disrupts the trajectory of cytosine methylation within developing zebrafish embryos.

Authors: Avila-Barnard, Sarah; Dasgupta, Subham; Cheng, Vanessa; Reddam, Aalekhya; Wiegand, Jenna L; Volz, David C

Published In Environ Res, (2022 Aug)

Abstract: Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is an organophosphate ester-based flame retardant widely used within the United States. Within zebrafish, initiation of TDCIPP exposure at 0.75 h post-fertilization (hpf) reliably disrupts cytosine methylation from cleavage (2 hpf) through early-gastrulation (6 hpf). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether TDCIPP-induced effects on cytosine methylation persist beyond 6 hpf. First, we exposed embryos to vehicle or TDCIPP from 0.75 hpf to 6, 24, or 48 hpf, and then conducted bisulfite amplicon sequencing of a target locus (lmo7b) using genomic DNA derived from whole embryos. Within both vehicle- and TDCIPP-treated embryos, CpG methylation was similar at 6 hpf and CHG/CHH methylation were similar at 24 and 48 hpf (relative to 6 hpf). However, relative to 6 hpf within the same treatment, CpG methylation was lower within vehicle-treated embryos at 48 hpf and TDCIPP-treated embryos at 24 and 48 hpf - an effect that was driven by acceleration of CpG hypomethylation. Similar to our previous findings with DNA methyltransferase, we found that, even at high μM concentrations, TDCIPP had no effect on zebrafish and human thymine DNA glycosylase activity (a key enzyme that decreases CpG methylation), suggesting that TDCIPP-induced effects on CpG methylation are not driven by direct interaction with thymine DNA glycosylase. Finally, using 5-methylcytosine (5-mC)-specific whole-mount immunochemistry and automated imaging, we found that exposure to TDCIPP increased 5-mC abundance within the yolk of blastula-stage embryos, suggesting that TDCIPP may impact cytosine methylation of maternally loaded mRNAs during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Overall, our findings suggest that TDCIPP disrupts the trajectory of cytosine methylation during zebrafish embryogenesis, effects which do not appear to be driven by direct interaction of TDCIPP with key enzymes that regulate cytosine methylation.

PubMed ID: 35248566 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication

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