Title: Pan-RAS inhibitors: Hitting multiple RAS isozymes with one stone.
Authors: Coley, Alexander B; Ward, Antonio; Keeton, Adam B; Chen, Xi; Maxuitenko, Yulia; Prakash, Aishwarya; Li, Feng; Foote, Jeremy B; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Piazza, Gary A
Published In Adv Cancer Res, (2022)
Abstract: Mutations in the three RAS oncogenes are present in approximately 30% of all human cancers that drive tumor growth and metastasis by aberrant activation of RAS-mediated signaling. Despite the well-established role of RAS in tumorigenesis, past efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors have failed for various reasons leading many to consider RAS as "undruggable." Advances over the past decade with KRAS(G12C) mutation-specific inhibitors have culminated in the first FDA-approved RAS drug, sotorasib. However, the patient population that stands to benefit from KRAS(G12C) inhibitors is inherently limited to those patients harboring KRAS(G12C) mutations. Additionally, both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms of resistance have been reported that indicate allele-specificity may afford disadvantages. For example, the compensatory activation of uninhibited wild-type (WT) NRAS and HRAS isozymes can rescue cancer cells harboring KRAS(G12C) mutations from allele-specific inhibition or the occurrence of other mutations in KRAS. It is therefore prudent to consider alternative drug discovery strategies that may overcome these potential limitations. One such approach is pan-RAS inhibition, whereby all RAS isozymes co-expressed in the tumor cell population are targeted by a single inhibitor to block constitutively activated RAS regardless of the underlying mutation. This chapter provides a review of past and ongoing strategies to develop pan-RAS inhibitors in detail and seeks to outline the trajectory of this promising strategy of RAS inhibition.
PubMed ID: 35101229
MeSH Terms: Antineoplastic Agents*/pharmacology; Antineoplastic Agents*/therapeutic use; Humans; Isoenzymes; Mutation; Neoplasms*/drug therapy; Neoplasms*/enzymology; Neoplasms*/genetics; ras Proteins*/antagonists & inhibitors; ras Proteins*/metabolism