Title: Evaluating the Effects of BPA and TBBPA Exposure on Pregnancy Loss and Maternal-Fetal Immune Cells in Mice.
Authors: Reed, Jasmine M; Spinelli, Philip; Falcone, Sierra; He, Miao; Goeke, Calla M; Susiarjo, Martha
Published In Environ Health Perspect, (2022 03)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to miscarriages and pregnancy complications in humans. In contrast, the potential reproductive toxicity of BPA analogs, including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), is understudied. Furthermore, although environmental exposure has been linked to altered immune mediators, the effects of BPA and TBBPA on maternal-fetal immune tolerance during pregnancy have not been studied. The present study investigated whether exposure resulted in higher rates of pregnancy loss in mice, lower number of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and lower indoleamine 2,3 deoxygenase 1 (Ido1) expression, which provided evidence for mechanisms related to immune tolerance in pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of BPA and TBBPA exposure on pregnancy loss in mice and to study the percentage and number of Tregs and Ido1 expression and DNA methylation. METHODS: Analysis of fetal resorption and quantification of maternal and fetal immune cells by flow cytometry were performed in allogeneic and syngeneic pregnancies. Ido1 mRNA and protein expression, and DNA methylation in placentas from control and BPA- and TBBPA-exposed mice were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and bisulfite sequencing analyses. RESULTS: BPA and TBBPA exposure resulted in higher rates of hemorrhaging in early allogeneic, but not syngeneic, conceptuses. In allogeneic pregnancies, BPA and TBBPA exposure was associated with higher fetal resorption rates and lower maternal Treg number. Importantly, these differences were associated with lower IDO1 protein expression in trophoblast giant cells and higher mean percentage Ido1 DNA methylation in embryonic day 9.5 placentas from BPA- and TBBPA-exposed mice. DISCUSSION: BPA- and TBBPA-induced pregnancy loss in mice was associated with perturbed IDO1-dependent maternal immune tolerance. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10640.
PubMed ID: 35343813
MeSH Terms: Abortion, Spontaneous*/chemically induced; Animals; Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism; Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity; Female; Mice; Phenols/metabolism; Phenols/toxicity; Placenta/metabolism; Pregnancy