Title: Probiotics Function as Immunomodulators in the Intestine in C57Bl/6 Male Mice Exposed to Inhaled Diesel Exhaust Particles on a High-Fat Diet.
Authors: Phillippi, Danielle T; Daniel, Sarah; Nguyen, Kayla N; Penaredondo, Bea Angella; Lund, Amie K
Published In Cells, (2022 Apr 25)
Abstract: Epidemiological studies reveal a correlation between air pollution exposure and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, yet few studies have investigated the role of inhaled particulate matter on intestinal integrity in conjunction with a high-fat (HF) diet. Additionally, there is currently limited information on probiotics in mitigating air-pollutant responses in the intestines. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and a HF diet can alter intestinal integrity and inflammation, which can be attenuated with probiotics. 4-6-w-old male C57Bl/6 mice on a HF diet (45% kcal fat) were randomly assigned to be exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 35 µg of DEP suspended in 35 µL of 0.9% sterile saline or sterile saline (CON) only twice a week for 4 w. A subset of mice was treated with 0.3 g/day of Winclove Ecologic® barrier probiotics (PRO) in drinking water throughout the duration of the study. Our results show that DEP exposure ± probiotics resulted in increased goblet cells and mucin (MUC)-2 expression, as determined by AB/PAS staining. Immunofluorescent quantification and/or RT-qPCR showed that DEP exposure increases claudin-3, occludin, zona occludens (ZO)-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, and decreases tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 expression compared to CON. DEP exposure + probiotics increases expression of claudin-3, occludin, ZO-1, TNF-α, and IL-10 and decreases MMP-9 and TLR-4 compared to CON + PRO in the small intestine. Collectively, these results show that DEP exposure alters intestinal integrity and inflammation in conjunction with a HF diet. Probiotics proved fundamental in understanding the role of the microbiome in protecting and altering inflammatory responses in the intestines following exposure to inhaled DEP.
PubMed ID: 35563751
MeSH Terms: Adjuvants, Immunologic; Animals; Claudin-3; Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects; Immunologic Factors; Inflammation; Intestines; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Occludin; Probiotics*/pharmacology; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Vehicle Emissions*