Title: Measurements of ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants inside a mobile exposure system on Los Angeles freeways.
Authors: Zhu, Yifang; Fung, David C; Kennedy, Nola; Hinds, William C; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu
Published In J Air Waste Manag Assoc, (2008 Mar)
Abstract: A mobile exposure and air pollution measurement system was developed and used for on-freeway ultrafine particle health effects studies. A nine-passenger van was modified with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system that can deliver filtered or unfiltered air to an exposure chamber inside the van. State-of-the-art instruments were used to measure concentration and size distribution of fine and ultrafine particles and the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) inside the exposure chamber. This paper presents the construction and technical details of the van and air pollutant concentrations collected in 32 2-hr runs on two major Los Angeles freeways, Interstate 405 (1-405; mostly gasoline traffic) and Interstate 710 (1-710; large proportion of heavy-duty diesel traffic). More than 97% of particles were removed when the flow through the filter box was switched from bypass mode to filter mode while the vehicle was driving on both freeways. The filtration system thus provides a great particulate matter exposure contrast while keeping gas-phase pollutant concentrations the same. Under bypass mode, average total particle number concentration observed inside the exposure chamber was around 8.4 x 10(4) and 1.3 x 10(5) particles cm(-3) on the I-405 and the I-710 freeways, respectively. Bimodal size distributions were consistent and similar for both freeways with the first mode around 16-20 nm and the second mode around 50-55 nm. BC and particle-bound PAH concentrations were more than two times greater on the I-710 than on the I-405 freeway. Very weak correlations were observed between total particle number concentrations and other vehicular pollutants on the freeways.
PubMed ID: 18376645
MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants/analysis*; Los Angeles; Particle Size; Particulate Matter/analysis*; Vehicle Emissions/analysis*