Title: Structure, function, and post-translational regulation of the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate cysteine ligase.
Authors: Franklin, Christopher C; Backos, Donald S; Mohar, Isaac; White, Collin C; Forman, Henry J; Kavanagh, Terrance J
Published In Mol Aspects Med, (2009 Feb-Apr)
Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. The first and rate-limiting step in GSH synthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, previously known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase). GCL is a heterodimeric protein composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits that are expressed from different genes. GCLC catalyzes a unique gamma-carboxyl linkage from glutamate to cysteine and requires ATP and Mg(++) as cofactors in this reaction. GCLM increases the V(max) and K(cat) of GCLC, decreases the K(m) for glutamate and ATP, and increases the K(i) for GSH-mediated feedback inhibition of GCL. While post-translational modifications of GCLC (e.g. phosphorylation, myristoylation, caspase-mediated cleavage) have modest effects on GCL activity, oxidative stress dramatically affects GCL holoenzyme formation and activity. Pyridine nucleotides can also modulate GCL activity in some species. Variability in GCL expression is associated with several disease phenotypes and transgenic mouse and rat models promise to be highly useful for investigating the relationships between GCL activity, GSH synthesis, and disease in humans.
PubMed ID: 18812186
MeSH Terms: Animals; Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/chemistry*; Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/metabolism; Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/physiology*; Glutathione/metabolism; Humans; Models, Biological; Protein Processing, Post-Translational