Title: Cigarette smoking and ozone-associated emergency department use for asthma by adults in New York City.
Authors: Cassino, C; Ito, K; Bader, I; Ciotoli, C; Thurston, G; Reibman, J
Published In Am J Respir Crit Care Med, (1999 Jun)
Abstract: The association between ambient ozone (O3) and hospital use for asthma in children and adults is well documented. The question remains of whether there are susceptible subpopulations of asthmatic individuals who are particularly vulnerable to high O3 levels. Because tobacco use was prevalent in our cohort of inner-city adult asthmatic individuals (n = 1,216) in New York City (NYC), we investigated whether cigarette smoking was an effect modifier for asthma morbidity. We examined the relationship between personal tobacco use and O3-associated emergency department (ED) use for asthma in public hospitals in NYC. Three subpopulations were defined: never smokers (0 pack-yr), heavy smokers (>/= 13 pack-yr) and light smokers (< 13 pack-yr). Time-series regression analysis of ED use for asthma and daily O3 levels was done while controlling for temperature, seasonal/long-term trends, and day-of-week effects. Heavy smokers displayed an increased relative risk (RR) of ED visits for asthma in response to increases in 2-d lagged O3 levels (RR per 50 ppb O3 = 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 2.62). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that heavy cigarette use was a predictor of ED use for asthma following days with high O3 levels. Although adverse health effects of ambient O3 have also been documented in asthma populations not using cigarettes (e.g., children), our results suggest that in adult asthmatic individuals, heavy personal tobacco use may be an effect modifier for O3-associated morbidity.
PubMed ID: 10351917
MeSH Terms: Adult; Air Pollution/adverse effects; Asthma/physiopathology*; Asthma/therapy*; Emergency Medical Services*/statistics & numerical data; Female; Forecasting; Humans; Male; New York City; Ozone/adverse effects*; Regression Analysis; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Smoking/adverse effects*; Time Factors