Title: Redox and electrophilic properties of vapor- and particle-phase components of ambient aerosols.
Authors: Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Shinyashiki, Masaru; Schmitz, Debra A; DiStefano, Emma; Hinds, William; Kumagai, Yoshito; Cho, Arthur K; Froines, John R
Published In Environ Res, (2010 Apr)
Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) has been the primary focus of studies aiming to understand the relationship between the chemical properties of ambient aerosols and adverse health effects. Size and chemical composition of PM have been linked to their oxidative capacity which has been postulated to promote or exacerbate pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. But in the last few years, new studies have suggested that volatile and semi-volatile components may also contribute to many adverse health effects. The objectives of this study were: (i) assess for the first time the redox and electrophilic potential of vapor-phase components of ambient aerosols and (ii) evaluate the relative contributions of particle- and vapor-fractions to the hazard of a given aerosol. To achieve these objectives vapor- and particle-phase samples collected in Riverside (CA) were subjected to three chemical assays to determine their redox and electrophilic capacities. The results indicate that redox active components are mainly associated with the particle-phase, while electrophilic compounds are found primarily in the vapor-phase. Vapor-phase organic extracts were also capable of inducing the stress responding protein, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. These results demonstrate the importance of volatile components in the overall oxidative and electrophilic capacity of aerosols, and point out the need for inclusion of vapors in future health and risk assessment studies.
PubMed ID: 20152964
MeSH Terms: Aerosols/chemistry*; Aerosols/toxicity; Air Pollutants/chemistry*; Air Pollutants/toxicity; Animals; Catalysis/drug effects; Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)/metabolism; Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism; Macrophages/metabolism; Mice; Oxidation-Reduction; Oxidative Stress; Particulate Matter/chemistry*; Particulate Matter/toxicity; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Toxicity Tests; Volatilization